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Washington State University Cheryl Reed

From Las Vegas to Cuba: Studying Life History Theory and Immune Behaviors

By Cheryl Reed

When Tiffany Alvarez studied women’s health through the lens of life history theory as an undergraduate student and McNair Scholar at UNLV, she didn’t know how far it would eventually take her. Now a doctoral student at Washington State University in evolutionary anthropology, she is planning to study in Cuba next summer with her advisor, Edward Hagen. The two will be investigating the effects of acute immune activation on components of pregnant women’s behavioral and biological immunity—or life history.

Life history theory seeks to explain aspects of an organism’s anatomy and behavior in reference to the way its life histories have been shaped by natural selection. The theory depends on principles of evolutionary biology and ecology and is widely used in other areas of science.

Alvarez explained how recent discoveries show that immunity appears to have behavioral components, often referred to as sickness behaviors, which serve to reduce exposure to pathogens and conserve energy. The features that characterize immunity are uniquely distinguished by their relationship with biological processes and also environmental contexts ranging from the socio-political to cultural and ecological. An ecological immunity perspective acknowledges that culturally mediated, class- and sex-specific patterns of activity, resource access, and reproduction are sources of significant diversity that affect immune response. She also explained that pregnancy is a reproductive state of unique immunity and a period of dynamic changes to immuno-competence.

In Cuba, Alvarez and Hagen will collect baseline levels of biological and behavior immunity from a sample of 100 pregnant women. After the data is collected, the researchers will randomize it into treatment groups that will receive different vaccines. It is predicted that the treatment group who receives the influenza vaccine will report markedly higher behavioral immunity than the groups who received the placebo.

Alvarez’s and Hagen’s research will determine if acute immune activation alters the behaviors of pregnant women in ways predicted by life history theory. Specifically, whether or not acute changes in pregnant women’s health status trigger a suite of compensatory behaviors that contribute to pathogen avoidance and mitigate energetic immune costs. These findings will contribute to larger theoretical and empirical discussions regarding context-specific variation in host-pathogen interactions and behavioral sickness symptom expression.

Alvarez is a first-generation college student from Last Vegas, Nevada. She is now on a streamline track to earn a master’s and doctoral degree in 5 years. As a McNair Alumna and teaching assistant, Alvarez has the opportunity to spread her research passion to other students.

“My work is so exciting,” says Alvarez. “My advisor is training me to be a peer, and I find that to be so valuable.”

Washington State University’s graduate degree in evolutionary anthropology has a strong record of research funding, and students are regularly involved in research and teaching from their first semester. Most students gain research experience at field and laboratory sites early in their careers.

Find out more about WSU’s graduate degree programs and where your research will take you at https://gradschool.wsu.edu/degrees/

Amir and Jet: Finding a Pet-friendly Campus

By Cheryl Reed

Amir Gilmore is a first-year doctoral candidate in cultural studies at WSU. He received his bachelor’s degree in history and black studies in education and a master’s degree in arts and black studies from SUNY. When Amir decided to pursue a doctoral degree, he found the Washington State University Cultural Studies program online and the name of faculty member Paula Price. He saw that her interests were similar to his and thought she may be someone he could work with.

“So I emailed her and we set up a time for a phone call,” said Amir. “We had an hour-long conversation. She sold me on WSU Pullman. For me, to have a one-hour conversation with someone who didn’t even know me really wowed me.”

Paula Groves Price, Associate Dean for Diversity in International Programs in the College of Education, shared information about the program in cultural studies with Amir–and also that Pullman was a nice town for a family or a dog—something important to Amir, who owned a Jack Russell Terrier named Jet. Jet was confined and trapped in the city in New York, and it was important for Amir that the campus be a good fit for his dog.

“Knowing that Pullman was dog-friendly is actually what settled my decision to attend,” said Amir. “I was really surprised when I arrived at Washington State University in Pullman – surprised that what I was told about the place was true. I love the open space and the feeling of community, and that I can take Jet off his leash and let him run. I also liked the feeling of school pride and the diversity of students.”

Amir says that the program in cultural studies is a good fit for him. He is interested in research about social justice and inequity and helping underrepresented youth find access to education. Although not certain of the direction his doctoral degree will take him, he’s open to ideas.

“I’ve thought of law school, politics, high school superintendent, and an author of books. I’ve always had a love of teaching and working with youth,” he said.

Find out about the Cultural Studies Program at https://education.wsu.edu/graduate/culturalstudies/

Saving the Frog

By Cheryl Reed

Doctoral student Erim Gomez has a driving interest in saving endangered animals. From his undergraduate work with the flat-tail horned lizard of California and the Colorado fringe-toed lizard to his graduate research on the leopard frog and redband rainbow trout of Washington State, Erim is now looking beyond borders to work in Latin America, where he hopes to analyze the spread of disease in amphibians.

“I study where amphibians live, what spaces they occupy, and how we can develop a conservation plan and restoration effort for them,” said Erim.

When he came to WSU in 2007 to earn a master’s degree, Erim was surprised to discover a supportive, diverse community where he could thrive and pursue his love of environmental science. For that reason, he decided to remain at WSU for his doctoral degree in Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, where he has worked in the Endangered Species Lab under Dr. Rodney Sayler, an associate professor in the School of the Environment.

“As a graduate student it’s important to have an advisor who supports your goals and allows you to be involved in other things,” said Erim. “Dr. Sayler has been ideal because he treats me like a colleague. He goes out of his way to find opportunities for me and has written me countless letters of recommendation for scholarships and encouraged me to attend conferences to help me grow as a leader.”
With strong support and research experience, Erim branched out to teach biology and ecology courses and advise the Ritmo Latino dance group—where he sometimes teaches salsa dancing—and MEChA, an organization dedicated to better education and representation of the Chicana/o community. He began giving keynote addresses—sometimes in Spanish—to share his experiences and encourage students to pursue research and graduate school opportunities.

“I am passionate about teaching and employing research and hands-on experience to aide students in the learning process,” said Erim, whose ultimate goal is to teach at the college level and work with underserved and underrepresented communities. “I tell my students that I would like to see equal representation of all races in all fields.”

Among Erim’s accolades, he was awarded a $100,000 Bullitt Leadership Fellowship in 2011 and is now on the board of trustees for the organization. The Bullitt Foundation aims to protect and restore the environment of the Pacific Northwest and is widely respected for its vision and strategic sensibility in pursuing a sustainable future. As the youngest board member, Erim works among renowned environmentalists, attorneys, and business owners of the Seattle area. As a successful fellow, Erim has also helped the last two Bullitt fellowship winners prepare their applications.

As a leading research institution, Washington State University has been a good fit for Erim. He grew up in a small Oregon town that had a state-funded salmon hatchery operated by high school students. There he gained firsthand experience on conservation and natural resources and the cultural implications of political, economic, and environmental decisions. Following high school, he attended Southern Oregon University, where he received his bachelor’s degree in environmental biology with a minor in economics and political science. He was invited to visit WSU during his undergraduate studies at SOU, and was interested not just because of his desire to conduct research in the Pacific Northwest, but because of the kindness shown him by WSU recruiters.

“WSU treats you special,” said Erim. “It’s a rural campus, but that strengthens the community. I’ve been at airports across the country wearing Cougar gear and hear someone yell, “GO Cougs!” I was even hiking in the Cascade Mountains one time and heard it!”

Erim attributes much of his drive to his parents, who were both born in Mexico in the 1950s. “My mother always told us that she expected my brothers and me to go to college. She says she used to whisper in my ear as a baby, ‘you are going to be a doctor,’” laughed Erim. Soon he will be a doctor of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences.

Because Washington State University has a thriving McNair program, Erim has had the opportunity to work with McNair undergraduate students and be part of the energy and ongoing success of its program.

Erim’s success as a leader, scholar and researcher is a testament to the powerful synergy of determination, opportunity, and the supportive community of Washington State University.

Carbon Nanotubes Make Lighter Body Armor

By Cheryl Reed

Kathryn Mireles has always been interested in math and engineering—an early indication that she might be a good fit for Washington State University’s graduate program in Materials Science & Engineering. Following her academic work at New Mexico Tech, Kathryn looked to WSU to carry her deeper into the world of polymer composites research in the laboratory of Professor Michael Kessler in 2013.

“Materials Science and Engineering is the marrying of chemistry and engineering. It is a really broad area,” says Kathryn.

Her research in Kessler’s lab is focused on working with carbon nanotubes, tiny cylindrical molecules with novel properties that are useful in many applications.

“Functional carbon nanotubes are over 100 times stronger than steel,” says Kathryn, who is using them to replace certain parts of body armor that will make them lighter, less expensive, and able to withstand higher impacts. Kathryn was able to participate in an internship at the Weapons and Materials Research Division at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, at the Army Research Laboratory located in Aberdeen, Maryland. Mechanical testing of the nanoparticle composite showed less brittle fracture as compared to current body armor materials. It also possessed a “trapping” type behavior.

In March, 2015, Kathryn was the first runner-up at the annual Materials Science and Engineering Research Exposition. Her poster, titled “Ballistic performance of poly-diclylcopentadine (p-DCPD) polymer,” explains her research and the benefits of using carbon nanotubes in body armor.

Current body armor is made up of polymer composites with reinforcing fibers. The reinforcements are meant to increase mechanical properties such as strength and toughness by transferring load from the surrounding matrix to the fiber without increasing the weight. However, mechanisms such as delamination of fibers and micro-cracking exist in current epoxy matrixes. The use of nanomaterials could overcome these issues. Carbon nanotubes boast exceptional mechanical properties with strengths over 150 times stronger than steel with a very low density—thus not impacting the weight of the armor. Nanotubes can also be functionalized to provide covalent bonding with the matrix by polymerization reaction.

Kathryn likes Washington State University’s versatility and that students can target a professor they want to work with. She also appreciates the research collaborations, like the internship she was able to participate in at the Maryland Aberdeen Research Laboratory.

“Graduate school is not isolated—we are always connecting with other students,” said Kathryn, who is also teaching two classes this year.

Her future plans? “I’m kind of torn between teaching and research” she said.

Find out more about the Graduate School’s versatile Materials Science and Engineering program at http://materials.wsu.edu.

From Puerto Rico to the White House

A First-Generation WSU Alumnus Recognized by President Obama

By Cheryl Reed

On February 11, 2015, President Barack Obama publicly recognized a group of heroes, including WSU graduate Dr. Guillermo “Billy” Pimentel.

“Last summer, as Ebola spread in West Africa, I said that fighting this disease had to be more than a national security priority, but an example of American Leadership,” said Obama. “We are here today to thank the troops and public health workers who headed into the heart of the Ebola epidemic. They represent what is best about America.”

Commander Pimentel, PhD, MSC, USN, couldn’t believe he was there, standing right behind the President. When he received the news that he would be recognized by the president for his work in Operation United Assistance in Liberia for the Ebola epidemic, one of the first things he did was call his mother in Puerto Rico.

“She could not believe it,” said Billy. “I never thought I would be shaking the President’s hand. I come from a poor family in Puerto Rico and was a first-generation college student. This was too surreal.”

The President continued. “Billy led a team of Naval microbiologists to set up mobile laboratories that can diagnose Ebola within four hours. And he said, ‘It has been an honor for us to use our skills to make a difference.’ These values – American values – matter to the world.”

Billy’s journey to the White House began in Puerto Rico, where at 17 years old, he joined the U.S. Naval Reserve as a hospital corpsman and served during the first Persian Gulf War. After completing his enlisted career, he used his veteran’s benefits to earn a bachelor’s degree in industrial microbiology and a master’s degree in biology from the University of Puerto Rico. When he began searching for a doctoral program, of the top three he looked at, he decided to go with Washington State University.

“I decided to go with the best,” said Billy. “Drs. Lori Carris and Jack Rogers invited me to apply, and even though my GRE scores were low because English is my second language, they let me in and believed in me. I never thought I would have that opportunity. Ultimately, I feel like I owe my success to WSU.”

Steve Burkett of the WSU Graduate School was able to award Billy a research assistantship, providing him with the needed financial support for his program for his first two years, and Carris was able to secure an assistantship for him for the rest of his program. When Billy and his family arrived at WSU in the winter of 1995, it was a culture shock. His wife and two young children had never been out of Puerto Rico and that first winter was pretty cold in Pullman.

“Our first winter there the temperatures were minus 20 degrees,” said Billy. “But the people were so friendly and nice. My oldest son at the time was three years old and within just three months was speaking English. Our four years at WSU were the best for our family.”

Billy completed his Ph.D. in plant pathology with a concentration in mycology and population genetics under the supervision of Lori Carris in 1999, and was commissioned as a Lieutenant in the Navy that July. His first duty station was the Naval Medical Center in Portsmouth, VA, where he was head of the microbiology department.

Second Tour: The Land of the Pharaohs

“I had wanted to go into academia because I love teaching,” said Billy, “but joining the Navy was a good career choice.”

In Portsmouth, Billy taught at the Old Dominion University and enlisted personnel going through the Advanced Lab Technician program. He was then transferred to the Naval Medical Research Unit #3 (NAMRU-3) in Cairo, Egypt for nearly seven years, from 2003 – 2010. There, he had the opportunity to teach microbiology courses to laboratory personnel from multiple Middle Eastern and former Soviet Union countries.

“That was very fulfilling,” he said. “It made me change my perception of who we are as humans – that we are global citizens and that we need to give back.”

Billy served in multiple leadership positions in Cairo, including the Disease Surveillance Program, International Emerging Infections Program, and Global Disease Detection and Response Program. He managed more than 25 scientific research projects that strengthened laboratory-based disease surveillance capacity worldwide. He traveled extensively, developing joint collaborative research projects important for force health protection. He provided laboratory support during several H5N1 outbreaks in West Africa and Central Asia. During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, he coordinated and led the NAMRU-3 outbreak response support to deployed forces in Afghanistan, Iraq and Ministries of Health in 20 countries.

When the Ebola epidemic began in 2013, there were limited laboratories in West Africa capable of detecting Ebola. In August 2014, the World Health Organization put in an official request to the U.S. Embassy in Liberia for laboratory assistance. At that time, Billy was in charge of the only four Navy rapid deployable mobile laboratories responsible for the detection of biowarfare agents and infectious diseases. Built to be quickly deployed, the laboratories weigh only about 1100 pounds. In September 2014, the Department of Defense flew Billy into Liberia to look at a location where two of his mobile laboratories might be placed. Within 14 days two labs were set up and fully operational.

“Before we arrived in Liberia, it was taking at least seven days to get Ebola lab results back to the physicians at the Ebola treatment units,” said Billy. “With my labs, the results took only four hours.”

Suspected Ebola patients waited in a common room at the Ebola Treatment Units, and some of those patients may not have had the disease. Long delays in getting lab results could have been a factor in the spread of the outbreak. The mobile labs were able to confirm true cases rapidly and assist placing patients in quarantine quickly.

“My laboratory at the Island Clinic ETU provided critical laboratory services and within just three weeks confirmed cases of Ebola had dropped significantly there,” said Billy.

“We are a force multiplier,” said the President during the press conference. “Today marks a transition in our fight against this disease. Ebola treatment units have been built, over 1,500 African health workers have been trained, and volunteers around the world gained the confidence to join the fight.”

Education Pays

As the only mycologist in the Navy, Billy is adamant about the role his time and education at Washington State University has played in his success.

“Washington State University taught me to think outside the box,” he said. “Earning a Ph.D. is not about becoming an expert, it’s more about learning how to think and solve big problems. My mentors at WSU were dedicated and believed in me. Dr. Carris said that with strong dedication, you can do miracles, and when I’m working, I sometimes think, ‘What would Dr. Carris do?’ I am extremely proud of my education at WSU and believe I owe it my success!”

Pimentel’s next assignment will be Executive Officer, second in command, at the Naval Medical Research Unit #6 in Lima, Peru, where he will serve for two years. When he retires from the Navy, he thinks that teaching at a community college would suit him. What would he like to tell graduate students? “They can use their knowledge to make a difference in the world. With a graduate degree, the sky is the limit,” he said.

“What makes us exceptional,” said Obama, “is when there’s a big challenge and we hear somebody saying it’s too hard to tackle, and we come together as a nation and prove them wrong. Thank you all for proving again what America can accomplish.”

View the President’s press conference about the Ebola response on C-Span: http://www.c-span.org/video/?324305-1/president-obama-remarks-combating-ebola.

“NICBR Exploring Careers in a Scientific Environment SymposiumAdditional Washington State University alumni serving as microbiologists in the Navy:

CAPT Marshall Monteville, Ph.D., Executive Officer at NAMRU-South East Asia (Singapore)
CDR Matthew Doan, M.S., (Duty Under Instruction at Penn State University)
LCDR Brent House, Ph.D., Lab Director at the Naval Medical Center San Diego
LT Kimberly Edgel, Ph.D., Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD (working in malaria)
LT Rebecca Pavlicek, Ph.D., NAMRU-South East Asia (Singapore)
LT Robert V. Gerbasi, Ph.D., NAMRU-6 in Lima, Peru (working in malaria AND he deployed to Liberia)

 

Left: Dr. Pimentel teaching a course